WCRP,IHDP,DIVERSITAS
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WCRP,IHDP,DIVERSITAS
WCRP,IHDP,DIVERSITAS
WCRP

The WCRP wasestablished over 25 years ago (in 1980), under the jointsponsorship of the International Council for Science (ICSU) and theWorld Meteorological Organization (WMO) , and, since 1993, has alsobeen sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission(IOC) of UNESCO.
The main objectives, set for the WCRP at its inception and stillvalid today, are to determine the predictability of climate and todetermine the effect of human activities on climate.
Since 1980, the WCRP has made enormous contributions to advancingclimate science (25th Anniversary Brochure). As a result of WCRPefforts, it is now possible for climate scientists to monitor,simulate and project global climate with unprecedented accuracy sothat climate information can be used for governance, indecision-making and in support of a wide range of practicalend-user applications (Strategic Plan Brochure).
In 2005, after 25 years of serving science and society, the WCRP,in collaboration with the broader scientific community, developedand launched the WCRP Strategy Framework 2005-2015. Implementingthis strategy will ensure that WCRP continues to work efficientlyand effectively towards strengthening our knowledge and increasingour capabilities with regard to climate variability andchange.
Aims
The World Climate Research Programme, sponsored by theInternational Council for Science (ICSU), the World MeteorologicalOrganization (WMO) and the Intergovernmental OceanographicCommission (IOC) of UNESCO, is uniquely positioned to draw on thetotality of climate-related systems, facilities and intellectualcapabilities of more than 185 countries. Integrating newobservations, research facilities and scientific breakthroughs isessential to progress in the inherently global task of advancingunderstanding of the processes that determine our climate.
The two overarching objectives of the WCRP are:
to determine the predictability of climate; and
to determine the effect of human activities on climate
...to facilitate analysis and prediction of Earth systemvariability and change for use in an increasing range of practicalapplications of direct relevance, benefit and value tosociety.
These two objectives underpin and directly address the needs of theUN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and contributeto many other international policy instruments.
To achieve its objectives, the WCRP adopts a multi-disciplinaryapproach, organizes large-scale observational and modellingprojects and facilitates focus on aspects of climate too large andcomplex to be addressed by any one nation or single scientificdiscipline.
Today, the WCRP encompasses studies of the global atmosphere,oceans, sea- and land-ice, the biosphere and the land surface,which together constitute the Earth's climate system. The fourmajor core projects, diverse working groups, various cross-cuttingactivities and many co-sponsored activities of the WCRP aredesigned to improve scientific understanding and knowledge ofprocesses that in turn result in better forecasts and hencebenefits to users of climate research (see 'Activities& Projects').
The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) was established in 1980with two major objectives: to determine the extent to which climatecan be predicted, and to determine the extent of human influence onclimate. These remain its goals.
Progress in understanding the variability and predictability ofindividual components of the climate system are making it possibleto improve confidence in projections of the climate, one of theoriginal objectives of the WCRP, and to apply research results forthe benefit of society (25th Anniversary Brochure). In particular,it is now possible for the WCRP to address the seamless predictionof the climate system from weekly weather to seasonal, interannual,decadal and centennial climate variations and anthropogenic climatechange. Advances in understanding and in new technology forobservations and computing also make it possible to contribute tothe broader questions of Earth system modelling and the use ofcomprehensive Earth system models for investigating thehabitability of our planet, and contributing to the socio-economicwelfare and the sustainability of modern societies and theirsupporting environments.
The WCRP is currently implementing a Strategic Framework (PDF)entitled Coordinated Observation and Prediction of the EarthSystem. Launched in 2005, this aims to facilitate analysis andprediction of Earth system variability and change for use in anincreasing range of practical applications of direct relevance,benefit and value to society. In moving to provide a broader suiteof products and services to a larger group of users, the WCRP isre-prioritising its activities to optimise societal benefits. Oneof the primary WCRP pathways to application and end-user benefitswill continue to be the integration of observations and models togenerate new understanding, leading to enhanced benefits fromclimate predictions (WCRP Strategic Framework website).
The 2005-2015 WCRP strategy will help promote the creation ofcomprehensive, reliable, end-to-end global climate observations andmodels for the dual purpose of describing the structure andvariability of the climate system and of generating a fullyconsistent description of the state of the coupled climate systemfor future prediction of climate (WCRP Strategic Brochure / WCRPStrategic Framework 2005-2015 (Chinese version).
WCRP measures of success
Each element of WCRP is developing a set of success measuresagainst which they will assess progress throughout the year andreport to the JSC annually. Some examples are given below. Othersare under development and will be added as they becomeavailable.
CROSS-CUTTING ACTIVITIES:
SEASONAL PREDICTION
MONSOONS
ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE
CORE PROJECTS:
CLIVAR
GEWEX
SPARC
CliC
CROSS-CUTTING ACTIVITIES:
SEASONAL PREDICTION
Involvement of WCRP projects in assessment and experiment
Easy access to experimental data
Hand over Task Force responsibilities to CLIVAR in 2007
Implementation of the WCRP coordinated seasonal predictionexperiment including the GLACE-2 land surface initializationexperiment
A written assessment of seasonal prediction skill based on the 2007workshop to be published by WCRP
A well defined process for future seasonal prediction skillassessments
MONSOONS
Future Development Plans:
Targetted workshops to sustain CLIVAR and GEWEX interactions
Pan GEWEX monsoon workshop - Oct 2006
Form pan-WCRP monsoon panel
Workshop on diurnal cycle of rainfall
Coordination with THORPEX
Implement MAHASRI
Future Successes Anticipated
Improved modelling of intraseasonal oscillation
More process studies and modelling of maritime continent and theIndian ocean
Better understanding of atmospheric moisture distribution andtransport
Reverse decay of observing system
Collect observations over sparsely sampled regions of the tropicaloceans
Better observations of land surface conditions
Investigate role of aerosol & dust impact ondevelopment of monsoon precipitation
Application studies on hydrology, health, agronomy
Implementation of Indian Ocean Observing System
ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE
Future Development Plans:
Reanalysis of sea ice data to combine data sets, evaluateerrors
Sea ice assimilation project
Develop "physics" ensembles to identify key processes
Future Successes Anticipated (desired)
Reduce climate sensitivity
Targetted intercomparisons to identify specific components
Use observations to constrain key parameters
Use observing programmes to reduce remaining uncertainties
More computer time, but not just to increase resolution
Investigate role of glaciers and ice sheets in climate change
Incorporate glaciers and ice sheets into global climatemodels
Attribute stratospheric change, role of natural variability v.anthropogenic
Be able to model stratospheric Anthropogenic Climate Changesignal
Determine influence of stratosphere on variability in dynamics ofthe troposphere
CCMVal - chemistry climate model validation activity -ongoing
Assess and update stratospheric temperature trends
Assess role of transport in modelling chemistry and ozonerecovery
Characterize variability in the stratosphere
CORE PROJECTS:
CLIVAR

New resourcesenabled by leveraging off CLIVAR efforts
Scientific improvements in:
the spectral character (i.e. spectral power, frequency)
predictability of ISO, seasonal, interannual, decadal variabilityin coupled models
Transitions into operational benefits:
reduction of uncertainty in climate models, bias reduction
number of new parameterizations incorporated into operationalmodels
Global ocean observation improvement:
number of deployments and
transition of process study and research observations tooperational status
Capacity building within and incorporation of developing nationsinto activities
Global and regional data products enabled
GEWEX
New resources enabled by leveraging off GEWEX efforts.
Transition into operational benefits:
reduction of uncertainty in climate models, bias reduction,
number of parameterizations incorporated into operationalmodels
Capacity building within and incorporation of developing nationsinto activities
Enabling global and regional data products.
Scientific advances in:
the understanding of radiation, cloud, precipitation and landprocesses and their role in the climate system.
Data sets used to improve models through parameterizationdevelopments and intercomparisons
Contributions to the advance of water cycle observationsystems:
number of actions addressed under GEO and IGOS,
transition of process study research, research data systems anddata management and analysis systems to operational status.
SPARC
New resources enabled by leveraging off SPARC efforts
Transition into operational benefits:
reduction of uncertainty in climate models, bias reduction,
number of parameterizations incorporated into operationalmodels
Capacity building within and incorporation of developing nationsinto activities
Enabling global and regional data products.
Data sets used to improve models through parameterizationdevelopments and intercomparisons
Contributions to the advance of stratosphere observationsystems
Baseline experiment (similar to AMIP-type experiments)
Encourage and strengthen links to rest of WCRP
Clarity on (i) SPARC in WMP; (ii) SPARC in WGSCIP/TFSP
Stimulate major international activities
Influential reports
Significant funding
Co-ordinate science assessments
Provide intellectual home, stimulus etc. for young scientists
CliC
New resources enabled by leveraging off CliC efforts
Transition into operational benefits:
reduction of uncertainty in climate models, bias reduction,
number of parameterizations incorporated into operationalmodels
Capacity building within and incorporation of developing nationsinto activities
Develop global and regional data products.
Scientific advances in:
Data sets used to improve models through parameterizationdevelopments and intercomparisons
Contributions to the advance of cryosphere observationsystems.
Partners
The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) organization around theworld comprises many partners and stakeholders. Each of thesecontributes services, information, solutions or funds into theglobal WCRP enterprise. The overarching objectives of all membersof this network are to contribute to improved understanding of theclimate system, climatic change and the interactions betweenclimate, people and the environment.
Together with the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme(IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on GlobalEnvironmental Change (IHDP) and DIVERSITAS, WCRP provides theinternational framework for scientific cooperation in the study ofglobal environmental change through the Earth System SciencePartnership (ESSP).
WCRP research addresses the many outstanding issues of scientificuncertainty in the Earth's climate system. WCRP scientists and itsactivities contribute significantly to the collection andimprovement of climate observations, model development andunderstanding of the climate system necessary for the detection andattribution of past climate change, and the provision of climateinformation, including projections of future change, assessed bythe Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). WCRPactivities match the scientific priorities identified by the IPCC,provide the basis for responding to issues raised in the UNFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and underpinefforts to meet the research challenges posed in Agenda 21.
WCRP's research and network facilitation is an importantcontributor to efforts to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals,especially environmental sustainability and combatting malaria andother disease. WCRP is partnering with DIVERSITAS and other globalenvironmental change programmes to build on the MillenniumEcosystem Assessment.

 

 

 

 

 

IHDP

FramingWorldwide Research on the
Human Dimensions of Global
Environmental Change
Human actions currently dominate the Earth’s great biophysicalcycles, and are, on aggregate, responsible for a variety oflarge-scale environmental changes – from climate change to loss ofbiodiversity or changes in land cover. There is no way to addresssuch problems effectively without altering human behaviourindividually and collectively. It is no exaggeration to say thatthe Earth is moving into a new era appropriately named the‘Anthropocene’.
Through this knowledge, it has become clear that addressinglarge-scale environmental issues, and fostering sustainabledevelopment will require a concerted effort on the part ofresearchers focusing on human behaviour.
The International Human Dimensions Programme on GlobalEnvironmental Change was developed to this end. It works towardunderstanding and addressing the effects of individuals andsocieties on global environmental change, and how such globalchanges, in turn, affect humans. By integrating humans into thedebate on global environmental change, IHDP addresses some of themost poignant, and widespread challenges of our day. As such, it isa producer of new knowledge that can flow into the work ofscientific assessments from other organisations and enhance theirability to answer critical questions of interest to the policyworld.
IHDP’s Activities
IHDP’s activities focus on three principal areas: developing andsustaining cutting-edge research; developing world-wide capacity tounderstand and deal with these challenges; and promotinginteraction between scientists and policy makers on these topics.Cutting-edge science pushes the research agenda and urgency ofaction towards global environmental change forward, by continuallyidentifying and addressing contemporary topics through its networkof scientific projects. Its capacity development activities ensurethe continued future and growth of human dimensions research byengaging with young scientists. Science-policy interaction enablesthe implementation of the research conducted within the frameworkof IHDP, bringing it to a level that is applicable and useful forstakeholders, and decision-makers.
Three Pillars of IHDP's Activities
Cutting-Edge Science
Capacity Development
Science-Policy Interaction
Programme Governance
IHDP is a joint programme of it's institutional sponsors: theInternational Council for Science (ICSU), the International SocialScience Council (ISSC), and since 2006, the United NationsUniversity (UNU). The IHDP Scientific Committee guides the work ofthe Programme under the terms of a constitution whose provisionsare agreed upon by the three parent organisations.
IHDP’s Secretariat
is located at the UN Campus in Bonn and operates under the auspicesof the UNU. Individual IHDP projects have International ProjectOffices (IPOs) that are located in various places around the worldbut collaborate closely with the Secretariat in Bonn. Additionally,IHDP has a network of national committees and contact points allover the globe.
IHDP's VISION
To provide international leadership in framing, developing, andintegrating social science research on global change to promote theapplication of key findings of this research and to help addressenvironmental challenges.
IHDP'S MISSION
To foster, coordinate, and conduct social science research thathelps to understand and address the challenges of globalenvironmental change and improve societal responses.
To contribute to the interdisciplinary attempts,including bothnatual and social sciences, to understand the interaction of humanswith the natural environmental that cause
global environmental change.To strengthen the capacities ofresearch and policy communities toward a shared understanding ofthe social causes and implications
of global changes.
To facilitate dialogue between science and policy.
Partnership
IHDP is also a part of the Earth System Science Partnership, apartnership of four international global change research programmeswhich recognise the planet as a complex system regulated byphysical, chemical and biological processes, and influenced - asnever before - by human activities.
IHDP Strategic Plan 2007-2015
Human actions lie at the heart of global environmental changes.Present changes in the Earth’s climate system are due, in largepart, to a build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resultingfrom human activities. Accelerated losses of biodiversity arisefrom the over-harvesting of animals and plants together with humanactions, leading to the destruction of habitats and the spread ofinvasive species. These and other similar activities are triggeringchanges that threaten social welfare, raising questions about theresilience of the current world system. The impacts of globalenvironmental changes will depend upon human responses ranging fromthe actions of individuals, to the creation of multilateralenvironmental agreements and the reactions of global civil society.Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference in the Earth’sclimate system, for example, will require far-reaching changes inthe production and consumption of energy. It is no exaggeration tosay that the Earth is moving out of the era known as the Holoceneand into a new era best described as the Anthropocene.
Efforts to understand, and to respond effectively, to globalenvironmental changes will require major inputs from the socialsciences. Policy makers at all levels need better knowledge of thedemographic, economic, institutional, and technological roots ofbehaviour leading to increases in emissions of greenhouse gases andthe destruction of ecosystems essential to the survival of species.They also need a clearer picture of the determinants of humanresponses – both individual and collective – to global developmentslike climate change and the loss of biodiversity. Above all, theyneed a better understanding of the dynamics of the coupledhuman-biophysical systems that give rise to global environmentalchanges and constrain efforts to deal with their consequences.Meeting these needs will require a substantial increase in thecontributions of the social sciences to understanding globalenvironmental changes. It is no longer sufficient to engage inresearch on the biophysical elements of complex and dynamic systemson the assumption that human actions are largely exogenous to theworkings of these systems or constitute only occasionalperturbations that can be set aside safely for purposes ofanalysis. What is required is a science of coupled systems or, asmany now call them, socio-ecological systems, in which the impactsof human actions are fully integrated into analyses of globalenvironmental changes.
Two consequences of this realisation are critical to thedevelopment of a Strategic Plan to guide the work of theInternational Human Dimensions Programme during its second decade.The Programme must develop more effective means to attract theattention of leading social scientists and to bring to bear theknowledge and methods of the social sciences in efforts tounderstand global environmental changes. It must also make betteruse of collaborative mechanisms, like the Earth System SciencePartnership and projects carried out jointly with the InternationalGeosphere-Biosphere Programme, to develop effective means ofintegrating the contributions of the social sciences and thenatural sciences to meet the challenge of understanding globalenvironmental changes. Together, these propositions have guided thepreparation of this Strategic Plan, which is intended to serve as ablueprint or roadmap for the growth and development of research onthe human dimensions of global environmental changes.
Initiating and managing cutting-edge research about globalenvironmental changes is the primary function of the InternationalHuman Dimensions Programme. Lessons learned from the experience ofthe last decade have made it clear that there is a need to coupleknowledge production with an active effort to develop capacityaround the world to engage in this work and to stimulate a mutuallyrewarding dialogue with the policy community. The goal of thisStrategic Plan is to chart an innovative course in all three areasand show how they can be integrated into a coherent programme inwhich the whole is substantially greater than the sum of theparts.
Oran R. Young
Chair, IHDP Scientific Committee

 

 

 

 


DIVERSITAS
Overview
DIVERSITAS – an integrative approach to biodiversity science
Biodiversity underpins the life-support system of our planet. Yetseveral factors, including human behaviour, have brought us to acritical point. The world is experiencing an unprecedented rate ofspecies extinction, which may have far-reaching consequences forall life forms.
DIVERSITAS brings together biological, ecological and socialsciences to address four key questions that underlie our limitedunderstanding of the current situation.
How did biodiversity evolve in space and time to reach currentstate?
How much biodiversity exists and how does its change or loss affectthe system as a whole?
How does biodiversity correspond to the delivery of ecosystemfunctions and services, and what is the true value of thesecommodities?
How can scientific investigation support policy and decision makingto encourage more sustainable use of biodiversity?
Armed with a broader, deeper knowledge of biodiversity, we will bebetter equipped to safeguard the future of Earth’s naturalresources.
Linking local and global efforts 
Through its international framework for biodiversity science,DIVERSITAS helps maximise the impact of initiatives undertakenaround the world. By establishing National Committees andcollaborating with other organisations, DIVERSITAS enlarges andstrengthens scientific networks. In turn, this makes it easier toidentify global research priorities, allocate resources, facilitateknowledge transfer, and support capacity building.
Bridging the science/policy interface 
The DIVERSITAS Science Plan highlights the need to synthesiseexisting scientific knowledge, identify gaps and emerging issues,and promote new research initiatives while also examining thepolicy implications of biodiversity science. Ultimately, the goalis to provide government agencies and policy makers with theinformation required to make sound decisions on biodiversityissues.
Strategy
DIVERSITAS is a collaborative research programme set up to promoteand catalyse knowledge about biodiversity, including its origins,composition, ecosystem functioning, ecosystem services, maintenanceand conservation.
DIVERSITAS Science Plan
Produced in 2002, the DIVERSITAS Science Plan outlines the overallresearch objectives for the newly restructured Programme. Under thechairmanship of Michel Loreau, the Scientific Committee developed adraft plan, which was then circulated for broader consultation. Inthe following years, DIVERSITAS hosted a series of Scoping Meetingsto develop more detailed Science Plans for each one of its CoreProjects and Cross Cutting Networks. Read the DIVERSITAS SciencePlan.
DIVERSITAS Core Projects 
Collectively, DIVERSITAS Core Projects comprise a cycle ofdiscovery, analysis and information sharing that supports theapplication of socially relevant knowledge. The Core Projects arecomplementary in that they allow DIVERSITAS to tackle broad issuesfrom various angles and that new knowledge acquired in one areawill help to advance research in others.
Individually, these Core Projects assemble the expertise requiredfrom both natural and social disciplines to address specificaspects of biodiversity science. Collectively, they ensure thecontinued development of a truly international and integratedapproach.
Developing new strategies and tools for discovering and navigatingbiodiversity; investigating the dynamic of diversification;assessing the evolutionary history of biotic assembly; predictingevolutionary responses to environmental perturbations.(bioGENESIS)
Assessing current levels of biodiversity; developing the scientificbasis for monitoring and observing; understanding and predictingchanges. (bioDISCOVERY)
Expanding biodiversity and ecosystem functioning science to largerscales and over a greater breadth of the biological hierarchy;linking changes in ecosystem structure and functioning to changesin ecosystem services; assessing human response to change inecosystem services. (ecoSERVICES)
Developing new knowledge to guide policy and decision making thatsupport sustainable use of biodiversity; evaluating theeffectiveness of current conservation measures; studying thesocial, political and economic drivers of biodiversity loss, aswell as social choice and decision making.(bioSUSTAINABILITY)
Cross-cutting Networks 
Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment - GMBA Exploring andexplaining the great biological richness of the mountains of theworld; seeking to provide input to policy makers and stakeholdersfor the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity inmountain regions. (GMBA)
freshwaterBIODIVERSITY Providing a common framework for freshwaterbiodiversity assessment. (freshwaterBIODIVERSITY)
agroBIODIVERSITY Assessing biodiversity in agricultural landscapesand the anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change; identifyingthe goods and services provided by agrobiodiversity at variouslevels of biological organization, e.g., genes, species,communities, ecosystems, and landscapes; evaluating thesocioeconomic options for the sustainable use of biodiversity inagricultural landscapes. (agroBIODIVERSITY)
Global Invasive Species Programme - GISP Cooperating on globallevel to make the world safe from the consequences of invasivealien species; conserving biodiversity and sustain humanlivelihoods by minimising the spread and deleterious impacts ofinvasive alien species; developing a practical, solutions-basedapproach, responsive to needs, and based on objective andscience-based knowledge from around the world. (GISP)
Well-defined deliverables
Several specific activities are common to the mandate of eachCross-cutting Network: generating scientific syntheses,establishing experimental research sites, undertaking case studies,developing new modelling theories and methods, and creatingscenarios. Meanwhile, each Cross-cutting Network developed from theresearch programmes of DIVERSITAS’ Core Projects. This breadth ofapproaches is critical to DIVERSITAS’ aim of developing anintegrated biodiversity science.
Interdisciplinary, international and interconnected
Led by a team of co-Chairs and a Scientific Committee, both ofwhich include representatives from natural and social sciences,each Core Project and Cross-Cutting Network implements its SciencePlan to support the DIVERSITAS international framework. It does soby engaging a network of international scientists who share adesire to develop new interdisciplinary approaches.
In addition to organizing workshops/symposia and promotingparticipation in international research projects, the Core Projectsand Cross-Cutting Network work collaboratively with existingprogrammes throughout the world, particularly those concerned withglobal change research.
Each core project is managed by an International Programme Office(IPO) hosted by a country or an organisation. Funds for Core Project activities are secured from national andinternational science funding organisations, conservationorganisations and foundations. IPOs represent an important mean ofstrengthening DIVERSITAS’ presence throughout the world andbuilding links to existing research institutes andprogrammes.
DIVERSITAS Core Projects 
DIVERSITAS Core projects
Well-defined deliverables
Interdisciplinary, international and interconnected
Collectively, DIVERSITAS Core Projects comprise a cycle ofdiscovery, analysis and information sharing that supports theapplication of socially relevant knowledge. The Core Projects arecomplementary in that they allow DIVERSITAS to tackle broad issuesfrom various angles and that new knowledge acquired in one areawill help to advance research in others.
Individually, these Core Projects assemble the expertiserequired—from both natural and social disciplines—to addressspecific aspects of biodiversity science. Collectively, they ensurethe continued development of a truly international and integratedapproach.
Developing new strategies and tools for discovering and navigatingbiodiversity; investigating the dynamic of diversification;assessing the evolutionary history of biotic assembly; predictingevolutionary responses to environmental perturbations.(bioGENESIS)
Assessing current levels of biodiversity; developing the scientificbasis for monitoring and observing; understanding and predictingchanges. (bioDISCOVERY)
Expanding biodiversity and ecosystem functioning science to largerscales and over a greater breadth of the biological hierarchy;linking changes in ecosystem structure and functioning to changesin ecosystem services; assessing human response to change inecosystem services. (ecoSERVICES)
Developing new knowledge to guide policy and decision making thatsupport sustainable use of biodiversity; evaluating theeffectiveness of current conservation measures; studying thesocial, political and economic drivers of biodiversity loss, aswell as social choice and decision making.(bioSUSTAINABILITY)
© J.-M. Dreuillaux  © D. Raffaelli
Well-defined deliverables
Several specific activities are common to the mandate of eachCross-cutting Network: generating scientific syntheses,establishing experimental research sites, undertaking case studies,developing new modelling theories and methods, and creatingscenarios. Meanwhile, each Cross-cutting Network developed from theresearch programmes of DIVERSITAS’ Core Projects. This breadth ofapproaches is critical to DIVERSITAS’ aim of developing anintegrated biodiversity science.
Interdisciplinary, international and interconnected
Led by a team of co-Chairs and a Scientific Committee, both ofwhich include representatives from natural and social sciences,each Core Project and Cross-Cutting Network implements its SciencePlan to support the DIVERSITAS international framework. It does soby engaging a network of international scientists who share adesire to develop new interdisciplinary approaches.
In addition to organizing workshops/symposia and promotingparticipation in international research projects, the Core Projectsand Cross-Cutting Network work collaboratively with existingprogrammes throughout the world, particularly those concerned withglobal change research.
Each core project is managed by an International Programme Office(IPO) hosted by a country or an organisation. Funds for Core Project activities are secured from national andinternational science funding organisations, conservationorganisations and foundations. IPOs represent an important mean ofstrengthening DIVERSITAS’ presence throughout the world andbuilding links to existing research institutes andprogrammes.

所属分类:编程相关Access    作者:新浪博客    时间:2010-11-20 0:00:00

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